James McPherson's Media & Politics Blog

Observations of a patriotic progressive historian, media critic & former journalist

  • By the author of The Conservative Resurgence and the Press: The Media’s Role in the Rise of the Right and of Journalism at the End of the American Century, 1965-Present. A former journalist with a Ph.D. in journalism, history and political science, McPherson is a past president of the American Journalism Historians Association and a board member for the Northwest Alliance for Responsible Media.

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Posts Tagged ‘Journalism’

The benefits of Chinese Rolexes, moving pyramids and expandable breasts

Posted by James McPherson on August 12, 2008

Politicians lie, and as long as the falsehoods come from the ones we like, we accept them gladly. If it’s our own candidate spinning the yarn, we adhere to the Fleetwood Mac strategy: “Tell me lies, tell me sweet little lies.”

Iran recently used Photoshop to lie about a missile launch. China now admits faking its Olympics fireworks display, which seems a bit odd considering that fireworks would seem to be the last thing China would have to fake. What’s next–we find out the Giant Pandas are really Disney-style animatrons, or that the 360-member Mormon Tabernacle Choir is bulking up its performances with extra taped voices?

Still, even the fireworks deception is not a huge surprise. For one thing, China has long been known as a great place for fakes: Rolexes, designer clothing, DVDs, etc. For another thing, especially when it comes to the media, real just isn’t real enough.

While we overlook political falsehoods, we are more upset (and should be) because we all know the media lie (the problem is, we typically don’t know when). They may be lying now, in a sense, to make the presidential race appear closer than it is. Magazines airbrush every model, deleting acne and often enlarging breasts. National Geographic moved a pyramid, and CBS digitally dovered up an NBC logo with its own. (See a great range of such lies, with photo examples, here and here.) Smut peddlers use the same techniques to create fake pornographic images of movie stars and–more troubling from both ethical and legal perspectives–children.

But with the exception of the last example, one might ask, “so what?” After all, we are a nation of liars. We can’t seem to help ourselves. The biggest problem isn’t that people lie to us, in my view. A more serious problem is that we cannot recognize lying when we encounter it.

An excellent Columbia Journalism Review book review of Farhad Manjoo’s latest book, True Enough: How to Live in a Post-Fact Society, summarizes how Manjoo discovers and points out that thanks to “selective perception” we are largely incapable of distingishing truth from fiction. We all have our own “facts,” and we’re sticking to them.

That inability to discern truth from falsehood is perhaps the best reason for a liberal arts education, or at least a few classes in logic and media literacy. Since most Americans will get none of those, however, perhaps we should be thankful for the obvious prevalence of lying. As we increasingly encounter falsehood, recognizing that it comes from all angles, perhaps health skepticism will increase.

Trusting nothing is a start, better than trusting everything or better than trusting a select few media sources. Learning what to trust, and why, is a goal worth striving toward. No lie.

Posted in Education, History, Journalism, Media literacy, Politics, Video, Women | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 5 Comments »

“Knowing” what isn’t true: Networks bash Obama more than McCain

Posted by James McPherson on July 29, 2008

We all know the mainstream media, especially the big three networks, love Barack Obama. John McCain’s campaign has complained about it at length, and I’ve recently written about it myself, here and here. A recent blog report of differing amounts of coverage devoted to the two fueled claims of bias.

The only problem? What we know apparently isn’t so, according to the nonprofit Center for Media and Public Affairs. Some anti-Obama bias has been clear, and no reasonable person expects anything resembling objectivity from the likes of Fox New, MSNBC, talk radio or bloggers. It also is true that Obama has received far more coverage–understandably so, because he is new, different, has been targeted by more negative bloggers, and has been doing far more interesting (that is, newsworthy) things than his Republican opponent. But contrary to the old public relations axiom that “any publicity is good publicity,” in fact Obama has drawn far more negative commentary (in both amount and percentage of coverage) than long-time media love object McCain.

The Los Angeles Times reports: “During the evening news, the majority of statements from reporters and anchors on all three networks are neutral, the center found. And when network news people ventured opinions in recent weeks, 28% of the statements were positive for Obama and 72% negative.”

The coverage is an apparent shift from primary coverage, when Obama received mostly positive coverage and Hillary Clinton was the target of the most media bashing.

Posted in Journalism, Politics | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

Snow bits

Posted by James McPherson on July 12, 2008

Whatever he is doing now–maybe trying to keep blacks and homosexuals out of heaven or hell–perhaps Jesse Helms needs a spokesman. Dead today is Tony Snow, the first press secretary ever to actively campaign for Republicans while presenting the “news.” Think of Snow, who hosted a conservative radio program and for a time served as Rush Limbaugh’s primary guest host, as the more attractive and wittier pre-turncoat Scott McClellan.

The following leads came from the BBC, CNN, Fox News, the New York Times, the Washington Post and the Washington Times. See if you can guess which is which (click on the letter preceding the headline for a link to the story for each).

And if you can’t get more than a couple, chances are you’re spending too much time relying on one source for news. Incidentally, most news outlets used the Associated Press version of Snow’s obituaries, but these news organizations produced their own.

a) Tony Snow, the former Bush White House press secretary known for his wit and agility at the podium, who inspired others by facing cancer with hope and optimism, died Saturday morning from the disease at Georgetown University Hospital.

b) Former White House press secretary Tony Snow–who once told reporters “I’m a very lucky guy”–died at the age of 53 early Saturday after a second battle with cancer.

c) Tony Snow, the former White House press secretary and conservative pundit who bedeviled the press corps and charmed millions as a FOX News television and radio host, died Saturday after a long bout with cancer.

d) Tony Snow, the conservative columnist and television commentator who relished sparring with reporters during a 17-month stint as President Bush’s press secretary, died on Saturday, the White House said.

e) Tony Snow, 53, the former television and radio talk show host who became President Bush’s chief spokesman and redefined the role of White House press secretary with his lively banter with reporters, died early this morning after losing a high-profile battle with cancer.

f) Former White House press secretary Tony Snow, 53, has died of cancer.

Posted in Journalism, Politics | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | 6 Comments »

Signs, despite our bickering, of our optimistic nature

Posted by James McPherson on July 11, 2008

Old people plant trees.

Teachers and parents keep trying to inspire children.

People who follow politics vote anyway.

Protestors keep showing up.

Journalists find good news among the evil.

Some still work to report the evil.

Almost everyone has faith in something or someone.

People from all walks of life read poetry.

Some write it.

Some get past themselves enough to write it well.

Posted in Education, Journalism, Poetry, Politics, Religion | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

The Newseum and the First Amendment

Posted by James McPherson on June 23, 2008

The greatly expanded Newseum, which calls itself the “world’s most interactive museum” has finally re-opened. The museum about journalism has moved from an out-of-the way location in Arlington, Va., to Pennsylvania Avenue between the White House and the Capitol. Symbolically, that’s a good place for journalists to be, or at least it was when Congress actually performed its oversight function of the White House and the press served as a watchdog over both.

You’ve seen the $450 million project if you watch “This Week with George Stephanopoulos” on ABC on Sunday mornings. It is drawing mix reviews, drawing some complaints about its pricing ($20 a head) and its failure to be current enough. In an American Prospect article titled “This Old Medium,” Anabel Lee (listed as an intern, so I’m guessing she’s young) complains that the Newseum devotes too little attention to the Internet. Frankly I have little problem with that perceived neglect of a not-very-historical medium (and I write that as someone whose latest chapter in a journalism history text actually is about the Internet age). No, I’m more concerned about Lee’s other main point, when she writes:

But it fails to tell us how we got from point A to point B, from the country’s first partisan newspapers to the World Wide Web. It fails to show how journalism has evolved. And by fetishizing newspaper relics and touching on major developments like new media in only a cursory manner, the Newseum unwittingly declares the death of the newspaper. It is at best a poorly executed history museum and at worst a news mausoleum that will, at the very least, provide a beautiful resting place for that final newspaper 35 years from now.

She’s right, of course, but perhaps such a shortcoming is appropriate since journalists themselves also fail far too often “to tell us how we got from point A to point B.” Historical context usually goes lacking, a situation seemingly bound to worsen as journalism schools more and more emphasize the “tools and toys” of journalism over its history. When I was seeking academic jobs, positions that included the teaching of media history–while never as common as I’d have liked–could be found throughout the country. Now virtually every journalism opening seeks someone who can teach media technology and/or public relations (an areas that in itself would have been kept away from most journalism programs, but those programs have long since become “mass communication” departments

Even the old Newseum was a great place to take journalism students, and I’ll take a group to the new version in January. I did geta kick out of it in 1999 when one of my my students noticed that an exhibit repeated a common myth that I had previously discussed in class, and I found the facility helped students better understand the business they hoped to enter. I also bought one of my favorite neckties there.

I am a bit troubled that almost every exhibit is sponsored by a major media corporation, including News Corp, NBC, Comcast, Bloomberg, Cox, Time Warner and the New York Times. With 250,000 square feet and 6,000 journalism artifacts inside, one of the highlights of the new version is actually etched onto the outside: a 74-foot-high engraving of the First Amendment.

Too bad the media themselves don’t spend more time discussing the reasons for a free press. Back when I did my master’s thesis, I found that throughout key points in recent decades, the press has virtually ignored the First Amendment except as a feeble expression of self-defense.

Like many journalism historians, I fear the demise of newspapers. But as an American, I fear even more the demise of the First Amendment. At least we’ll be able to read it in granite, as we walk by on our way to the Drudge exhibit.

Posted in Education, History, Journalism, Personal, Politics | Tagged: , , , , , , , | 2 Comments »

“A dog’s life” or “Life’s a bitch”

Posted by James McPherson on June 17, 2008

CBS and other sources offer a headline stating, “Leona Helmsley’s Dog Loses $10 Million.” My first thought was to wonder if the dog (named “Trouble”) had a gambling problem. My second thought was, “This is more important than, oh, say, a thousand or so other stories?”

Yet I did read the story, finding that a judge had cut Trouble’s trust fund from $12 million to a mere $2 milion. The story also included an itemized list of the dog’s expenses, such as $60,000 a year for its guardian. That’s about $57,000 more than it would cost me to leave my dog at our regular kennel for a year. Trouble also “needs” $12,000 per month for food, a figure considerably above what is set by the U.S. Census as the poverty level for all of one person’s needs (food, shelter, etc.).

The pampered pooch’s guardian also listed $18,000 annually for medical care. At that rate, Trouble could get a total hip replacement–of both hips–twice a year and half several thousand dollars left over. Compare that to the average health plan for a family of four Americans, for which the employer contributes $12,100 and the employee chips in $3,300, for a total of $15,400–or $2,600 less than Trouble supposedly needs every year.

On the other hand, John McCain and the rest of the Senate have great health care plans. If you’re not a Congressman or a rich person’s dog, then whose fault is that?

Posted in Journalism, Politics | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Happy Father’s Day…

Posted by James McPherson on June 13, 2008

… to all dads. Despite the price of gas, I’m off early tomorrow morning until Tuesday to spend a long weekend with my father and mother.

And speaking of fathers, perhaps no one better captured the importance of the relationship between fathers and sons than NBC newsman Tim Russert, who died yesterday. I’ve been watching and reading tributes to him from a lot of sources in media and politics. The question that keeps coming to mind–the one I like to think Russert would have asked–as I see people ranging from Keith Olbermann to half a dozen Fox News people comment on what a great journalist he was, is this: “If what Russert did was so great in terms of depth, fairness and journalistic integrity (and most of the time, it was), why don’t all the rest of you try harder to emulate him?”

Now that would be a proper way to honor the son of “Big Russ.”

Posted in Journalism, Personal, Politics | Tagged: , , , | 1 Comment »

Journalists & historians: dueling irrelevancies?

Posted by James McPherson on May 23, 2008

As a journalist I regularly was frustrated with the lack of historical context in most political writing, including my own. Despite the arrival of more cable news stations and the Internet, for most media users the situation has not improved. Partly that’s because most people focus on too few media sources in generally, and especially on television, for news. In addition, time constraints or ignorance often make journalists neglect context, and journalists spend far too much time and energy chasing three C’s: controversy, crashes and celebrities. That’s old news. Yet I think it worth noting that journalism–supposedly “the first draft of history”–and history itself have become increasingly similar in their lack of usefulness to the public.

Journalists and historians have much in common, some of which I discussed in a bibliographic essay that concludes my first book (a book so expensive that it will likely never be owned by anyone other than libraries and people related to me). I sometimes tell people I became a historian after leaving the newsroom because historical research was a lot like journalism, except that most of your sources are dead so they don’t complain about being misquoted.

Actually few of the complaints about my journalism involved misquotes, and in most of those cases I remained convinced that I had quoted the person accurately. People sometimes say things they shouldn’t, or that prompt readers to react in ways a source didn’t expect. Far more common in my case than inaccurate or misleading quotes were cases of confusing grammar, typos, misspelled names or misplaced decimals. Despite good editors–and the biggest problem with blogs, including this one, may be the lack of editors–mistakes are far too common in both journalism and history. A page that looks perfect on a computer screen and a proof sheet can seem to inexplicably develop errors as it is being printed. Even the aforementioned very pricy book has at least one error in it, so if you happen to be one of the few hundred people or libraries who own a copy, let me know and I’ll tell you the mistake.

Another thing journalism and history have in common is that both have undergone massive changes in recent years. Though critics may disagree, both have improved significantly in many respects. Technology, changing politics, shifting audiences and the inclusion of a much wider range of people (both as subjects and as researchers) have brought dramatic shifts. My students now take it for granted that journalism and history alike include women and people of color. Some of my undergraduate professors apparently did not take that for granted, though by then (the 1970s) the shift was well underway.

Increasing complexity–or more accurately, the increasing recognition that the world is complex–caused new problems, especially as storytellers felt more obligated to interpret the meaning of events for readers or listeners. “Faced with complex issues when researching and telling their stories, both historians and journalists sometimes fall back on customary articifical structures such as story ‘frames’ or academic theories,” I noted previously.

At the same time, both journalists and historians often tend to focus on small, narrow, and ultimately relatively unimportant stories. Too many historians research minor events or personalities that virtually no one cares about. They then share their findings in conference presentations that few people (and no non-academics) hear and through journal articles that few read. The historians adds a line to his or her vita, then engages in another round of what my wife calls mental masturbation, secure in the knowledge that s/he is going historically where no one has gone before. Far too often, however, there’s a good reason no one else has bothered to go. Yet few of the most skilled historians actually produce work designed for a mass audience (most of the rare exceptions pop up fairly regularly on PBS), the people who have the most to gain–a knowledge of and appreciation for how we got to where we are, and an enhanced knowledge of how self-government might work.

Those people also don’t learn much about the most important events from history’s first-drafters, the news media. Journalists cannot share what they don’t know. As I noted in in my more recent book, throughout most of the second half of the 20th century the mainstream media were largely unaware of a huge political shift taking place in America, the shift toward conservatism, in part because they focus on fairly obvious day-to-day events. Chances are, they’re missing something equally important today. Unfortunately, we likely won’t know what until after the next election or later. Maybe someday a historian will tell us what it was.

Posted in Education, History, Journalism, Politics, Women, Written elsewhere | Tagged: , , | 2 Comments »

Four books

Posted by James McPherson on May 17, 2008

The student body president of the university in which I teach had an interesting idea. He asked every faculty member and administrator for a list of four books (excluding the Bible) that had influenced them in some way, and then he shared the entire list with the student body. One surprise was how few duplicates were chosen. Chronicles of Narnia author C.S. Lewis appeared most frequently on the list, with 14 mentions (five for Mere Christianity, with three other titles splitting the rest).

Not surprisingly, many people chose at least one or two books related to their own disciplines, and I’d guess that those books helped guide them into their chosen fields. Adminstrators listed books about leadership. An art professor chose a book about painting and one about drawing. Business professors listed books about business strategies. Coaches named John Wooden and other coaches. A biology professor and a psychology professor both cited Darwin, and a philosophy professor named Plato and Augustine.

Some choices that might have been more surprising, especially to those unfamiliar with liberal arts institutions. The Brothers Karamazov made four lists, while The Brothers K and Moby Dick each made two. A wide range of literary and inspirational works appeared, demonstrating what I once read elsewhere (sorry, I can’t remember the source): that two modern students could each gain a thorough and satisfying liberal arts education without having read any two books in common. That range is great in terms of diversity of ideas, but does mean that we have fewer cultural touchstones in common. Instead of great literary works, of course, what we now share are here-and-gone television shows.

Incidentally, the titles of my own list–which I found difficult to whittle to four choices–make it look like I teach geography. Most are misleading in that sense, of course, and have far more to do with my views of journalism. My choices were:

  • Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. I actually had never managed to get around to reading this until after I read Neil Postman’s 1985 Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. Postman noted that though we feared a world like that presented in George Orwell’s 1984, Huxley’s nightmare vision was much closer to our reality.
  • The Jungle by Upton Sinclair. A wonderful critic of American journalism, Sinclair’s 1906 classic about the meatpacking industry in Chicago prompted changes in food laws and horrified millions–including me, many years later when I was in high school. It also showed me what passionate writing could sometimes do for society as a whole.
  • Desert Solitaire by Edward Abbey, better known for his comic novel The Monkey Wrench Gang. Perhaps better than anyone else, Abbey showed us what is beautiful and worth saving of the American Southwest. And he did so in a way that was simultaneously cranky and funny.
  • The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway. A fable that was the former journalist’s simplest and perhaps best work. And the older I get, the better it gets. Which reminds me of a favorite, unrelated expression: “The older I get, the better I used to be.”

Posted in Education, Journalism, Media literacy, Personal | Tagged: , , | 1 Comment »

Howard Dean and convention bloggers

Posted by James McPherson on May 15, 2008

The Democratic National Committee has announced 55 bloggers who will cover this year’s Democratic Convention, in what DNC chair Howard Dean calls the party’s “commitment to engaging a broad spectrum of audiences … using new technology and other creative means.” The announcement notes that Dean notified the bloggers of their selection via an online video message.

The 55 blogs represent each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia,  Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and “Democrats abroad.” With names ranging from Hummingbirdminds to HorsesAss (with, not surprisingly lots of “blue”), they were chosen from more than 400 applicants. The announcement also notes: “Some of the blogs selected for the State Corps are full-time, professional endeavors while others are the work of individuals, who through their own efforts have become recognized authorities on state and local politics.  Bloggers had to submit daily audience information and provide examples of posts that made their blogs stand out as an effective online organizing tool or agent of change, a demonstration of both the reach and impact blogs have had and will continue to have on the 2008 election.  The program recognizes the growth of more localized blogs and is in line with Governor Dean’s 50-state strategy.”

It remains to be seen what effect, if any, the addition of the bloggers will have on the convention and its coverage, and unless the Obama-Clinton battle unexpectedly continues through the convention, the happenings in Denver will provide little news. But the inclusive move provides a reminder of two things the often-criticized Dean has done to permanently change the face of Democratic and national politics.

The first of those was the 50-state strategy mentioned above. Against the wishes of the Clintons and other party regulars, Dean scrapped the tradional Democratic approach of focusing on supposed key states to try to build up the party in every state. The resulting structure (which as I’ve noted elsewhere mirrored some of the early party-building activities that brought Republicans to power in the 1990s) is a primary reason that Democrats did so well in the 2006 Congressional elections, surprising virtually everyone by winning a majority in both houses.

Dean’s other significant contribution was in showing Barack Obama how to run a successful campaign. Dean had used an unprecedented Internet campaign to gain the support of young voters, labor unions and others for his own presidential bid. Yet because Dean’s campaign dramatically flamed out, and because the 2004 elections ended up being pretty much decided by the same traditional blocks of voters as in previous elections, most 2008 candidates–and most notably Hillary Clinton’s campaign–overlooked or ignored the promise of Dean’s methods. But Obama’s campaign has used and refined those methods to generate mind-boggling amounts of money and to fire up the voters who would turn out for state caucuses. Perhaps the new voters will fade as the election gets closer and the campaign becomes inevitably nastier, and Obama may lose to McCain in the general election. Still, you can bet that the leading candidates from both sides in 2012 will be using Obama’s–and Dean’s–methods.

The Democratic use of the Internet also recalls how conservatives effectively use alternative media, especially direct mail, in building their own coalition. As I point out in my most recent book, “Particularly important from a media standpoint, direct mail gave sponsoring organizations a means to get out their message in an unfiltered, emotional, one-sided way–without drawing the attention of the mainstream media or political opponents.”

I have to admit that I’ve never heard of, let alone read, most of the 55 blogs selected, but will make it a point to sample them all during the next couple of weeks. In case you’d like to do so, the complete list is as follows:

ALASKA – Celtic Diva’s Blue Oasis – http://divasblueoasis.blogspot.com

ALABAMA- Doc’s Political Parlor – http://www.politicalparlor.net

ARKANSAS- Under The Dome.com – http://www.underthedome.com

ARIZONA – Ted Prezelski – Rum, Romanism and Rebellion – http://www.rumromanismrebellion.net

CALIFORNIA – Calitics- http://Calitics.com

COLORADO -SquareState.net – http://squarestate.net

CONNECTICUT -My Left Nutmeg – http://myleftnutmeg.com

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA- DCist.com – http://dcist.com

DELAWARE – TommyWonk – http://tommywonk.blogspot.com/

DEMOCRATS Abroad – Democrats Abroad Argentina – http://www.yanquimike.com.ar

FLORIDA – Florida Progressive Coalition – http://flaprogressives.org

GEORGIA- Tondee’s Tavern – http://www.tondeestavern.com

GUAM – No Rest for the Awake – Minagahet Chamorro – http://minagahet.blogspot.com

HAWAII – iLind.net: Ian Lind Online – http://www.ilind.net

IOWA – The Iowa Independent – http://iowaindependent.com

IDAHO – 43rdStateBlues.com – http://www.43rdstateblues.com

ILLINOIS- Prairie State Blue – http://www.PrairieStateBlue.com

INDIANA- Blue Indiana – http://www.blueindiana.net

KANSAS – EverydayCitizen.com – http://everydaycitizen.com

KENTUCKY – BlueGrassRoots – http://www.bluegrassroots.org

LOUISIANA – Daily Kingfish – http://www.dailykingfish.com

MASSACHUSETTS – Blue Mass. Group – http://www.bluemassgroup.com

MARYLAND – The Center for Emerging Media – http://www.centerforemergingmedia.com

MAINE – Turn Maine Blue – http://www.turnmaineblue.com

MICHIGAN – Blogging For Michigan – http://bloggingformichigan.com

MINNESOTA – Minnesota Monitor – http://minnesotamonitor.com

MISSISSIPPI – The Natchez Blog – http://natchezms.blogspot.com

MISSOURI – Fired Up! LLC – http://www.firedupmissouri.com

MONTANA – Left in the West – http://www.leftinthewest.com

NORTH CAROLINA – BlueNC.com – http://bluenc.com

NORTH DAKOTA – NorthDecoder.com – http://www.northdecoder.com

NEBRASKA – New Nebraska Network – http://www.NewNebraska.net

NEW HAMPSHIRE – Blue Hampshire – http://www.bluehampshire.com

NEW JERSEY – PolitickerNJ.com – http://www.politickernj.com

NEW MEXICO – Democracy for New Mexico – http://www.DemocracyForNewMexico.com

NEVADA – Las Vegas Gleaner – http://www.lasvegasgleaner.com

NEW YORK – Room 8 – http://www.r8ny.com

OHIO – Ohio Daily Blog – http://www.ohiodailyblog.com

OKLAHOMA – DemoOkie – http://www.DemoOkie.com

OREGON – BlueOregon (blog) – http://www.blueoregon.com

PENNSYLVANIA – Keystone Politics – http://www.keystonepolitics.com

PUERTO RICO – Jusiper – http://jusiper.blogspot.com

RHODE ISLAND – Rhode Island’s Future – http://www.rifuture.org

SOUTH CAROLINA – CracktheBell.com – http://www.crackthebell.com

SOUTH DAKOTA – Badlands Blue – http://www.badlandsblue.com

TENNESSEE – KnoxViews/TennViews – http://www.knoxviews.com

TEXAS – Burnt Orange Report – http://www.BurntOrangeReport.com

UTAH – The Utah Amicus – http://utahamicus.com

VIRGINIA – Raising Kaine – http://www.raisingkaine.com

VIRGIN ISLANDS – Democratic Party of the US Virgin Islands – http://groups.yahoo.com/group/democratvi

VERMONT – Green Mountain Daily – http://greenmountaindaily.com

WASHINGTON – HorsesAss.org – http://www.horsesass.org

WISCONSIN – Uppity Wisconsin – http://www.uppitywis.org

WEST VIRGINIA – West Virginia Blue – http://www.wvablue.com

WYOMING – Hummingbirdminds blog – http://hummingbirdminds.blogspot.com

Posted in Journalism, Politics, Written elsewhere | Tagged: , , , , | 3 Comments »